"Colonell Ashemberg marched towards Pomerell with a party of 1500 horsemen, and in the night tyme not farr from Konitz falleth into the Polls quarters, fyreth some villages, ruineth Duke Dimitre Visniovitsky his and other regiments, and retires with some losse and in great confusion to Sluchow, the trowpes haveing lost each other and their guides in the woodes, and persued hotly by the Polls."-Diary of Patrick Gordon of Auchleuchries
Rutger von Ascheberg commanded four 6-pound cannon and 950 men drawn from the following five regiments
- Pfalzgraf Philip von Sulzbach's regiment of Horse: 4 companies
- Karl Gustav Wrangel's regiment of Horse: 4 companies
- Gustav Otto Stenbock's regiment of Horse: 6 companies
- Engel's regiment of Horse: 4 companies
- Rutger von Ascheberg's regiment of Horse: 4 companies
- In total 22 companies
Given the much reported weakness of the Swedish regiments in the fall and winter of 1656 the strenght reported above is suspicously high. If Ascheberg did indeed field 950 his troops would have included a large number of "commanded" troopers drawn from other regiments in the army which are not mentioned above.
Pfalzgraf Philip von Sulzbach's regiment of Horse(Aka The King's Life Regiment of Horse)
A large regiment with a paper strenght of 9 companies with 108 officers and 630 men which was raised in Germany. However by the time of the intial invasion of Poland only 330 men had been mustered in Pommerania. 8 companies with 270 men were part of Wittenbergs army while a single company with 60 men marched with Karl Gustav.
The regiment took part in the march into southern Poland and was present at the battle of Zarnow It took part in the Krakow campaign and was in the thick of the fighting during the battle of Wojnicz. In the fall into took part in the campaign against Royal Prussia where it also found winter quarters. In March 1656 one squadron with 200 men joined the Pfalzgraf's mach to Warsaw which was in much need of reinforcements due to the local population rising against the Swedes across the countryside in central Poland. In April it rejoined the main Swedish and fought in the battles of Gniezno/Kleck and Warsaw.
In June 1656 the regiment mustered a total of 470 men, 270 men with the King's field army and 200 men with Stenbock's corps in Royal Prussia. The 2nd squadron took part in Stenbock's campaign in East Prussia and fought in the battle of Filipow in October 1656. It then rejoined the King's army and the now complete regiment took part in the winter campaign in Pomerelia in late 1656.
Karl Gustav Wrangel's regiment of HorseMajor Johan Persson Lindorm
Raised in Germany as a 8 company regiment with 400 common troopers and 93 officers and staff in September 1655. In January 1656 the regiment can found in Poland were it was quartered in Brzesc Kujawski. Badly worn down by desertion, disease and partisan warfare it was brought up to strenght using the remants of Otto von Styrum's Dutch cavalry regiment as well as trying to find new recruits in Germany and Poland.
The regiment followed Wrangel during the campaign in April-May 1656 and fought in the battle of Gniezno/Klecko. In late May the regiment was made part of Robert Douglas corps and took part in the march to Pultusk. In June it rejoined the main army and fought in the battle of Warsaw. (Where it was one of the Swedish regiments that reinforced the Brandenburg wing of the army.)
In October 1656 the regiments fortunes began to decline as Wrangel was about to leave Poland for a new command in Livonia while Lt-Col. Planting went on leave in Pommerania. This left Lindorm in command of an unsupported regiment. The regiment may have been part of Stenbock's army at Filipow were a squadron of made up of "Lindorm" and a squadron of the Royal Guards is found in one document. But Lindorm could also have been temporarily attached to the Guards without the rest of the regiment being present. In the fall of 1656 the regiment was attached to Aschebergs regiment to form a combined unit refered to as "Wrangel-Ascheberg" by Karl Gustav. (Calrbom quotes a regimental strenght of 4 companies with 96 common troopers during this period) In February 1657 the remnants of Wrangel's regiment (which by then mustered only 50 common troopers) was formaly absorbed into Ascheberg's regiment and the regiment ceased to exist.
Gustav Otto Stenbock's regiment of HorseLieutenant-Colonel Adam Heinrich von Wussow
Recruited as a regiment of 8 companies in 1655-1656 the regiment entered Poland January-February as Wussow marched to joined Stenbock who was in Royal Prussia.
As part of Stenbock's army the regiment remained in Royal Prussia for most of 1656 and was engaged in the war against the forces raised by Gdansk (Danzig). As result it service record is less well covered in printed sources than that of units which served with Karl Gustav in the more famous campaigns in southern Poland. The regiment was part of the army which Stenbock led into East Prussia in the fall of 1656 and saw action in the battle of Filipow were Stenbock defeated the Lithuanian army.
The regiment may have contained a company of dragoons, there are loose references to "Stenbock's dragoons" at times though this coudl also refer to temporary dragoons drawn from Stenbock's regiment of Foot or a poorly documented dragoon regiment which is also connected to Stenbock. A muster from 1660 shows the regiment with 7 companies of horse and 1 company of dragoons though it is impossible to tell if the dragoon company is a later addition.
Engel's regiment of HorseA composite unit made up of the remnants of the two regiments of Horse raised in Bremen by the brothers Jochim and Hans Engell. Both were veterans of the 30 Years War and Jochim had been in Swedish service since his youth and as a lieutenant took part in the defence of Stralsund in 1628. Hans began his military service some years later in 1636.
The Engell regiments saw extensive service in the war from the initial invasion in 1655 when they were part of Arvid Wittenbergs army to 1657 when the two had been combined into a single regiment commanded by Jochim Engell which was part of the the army which Karl Gustav led towards Denmark. The Engell's fought in the battle of Zarnow 1655 and were part of the winter campaign against Czarniecki in 1656 were they saw action in the battle of Golab. Joachim Engell's regiment took part in the last part of the Jaroslaw campaign and after a short rest both regiments fought in the battle of Gniezno (aka Klecko) were Hans Engell was in the thick of the fighting as the commander of the Swedish vanguard.
In the autumn of 1656 both regiments were part of the small corps with which Major-General Israel Ridderhjelm reinforced the Brandenburg army in East Prussia and as a result both regiments were badly mauled in the battle of Prostken. Hans Engell was taken captive by the Tartars and would spend long years in captivity before being released.
Rutger von Ascheberg's regiment of HorseMajor Reinhard von Hornberg
A veteran of the 30 Years War Ascheberg reentered Swedish service in 1655 when he was commissioned to raise a regiment of Horse in Bremen. The 6 companies had a paper strenght of 72 officers and 360 men and in November the regiment muster 318 men.
In December 1655 the regiment joined a detachment of German troops led by Major-General Valdemar Christian of Schlesvig-Holstein and marched into Pomerelia were it soon began engaged in the ongoing fighting with the troops commanded by Weyhers including beating up the quarters of four Polish companies at Kaselitsky near Marienburg. In January Ascheberg's regiment was sent to reinforce Douglas army and took part in the winter campaign against Stefan Czarniecki. At the manor of Zakrzow Ascheberg's detachment of 242 German and Swedish Reiters fought of a night attack by Stanislav Witowski who led a force of 800-1500 men made up of regulars, noble volunteers and armed peasants.
Rejoining the main Swedish army 3 squadrons of Ascheberg's regiment took part in the hard fought battle of Golab were Czarniecki was defeated. Afterwards Ascheberg took part in the so called "Jaroslaw march" during which Ascheberg and his regiment won several independet actions against Polish forces. An separate detachment of the regiment were part of the Swedish troops defeated at Warka and only 39 men managed to return to Warsaw. By June 1656 the regiment had been much reduced by the hard campaigns and mustered on 150 men in a single squadron. The regiment fought in the 3 day battle outside Warsaw but no details of it's service there seem to have been recorded. In the fall the still weak regiment was reinforced by attaching Wrangel's old regiment of Horse an attachment which was to be made permanent when the two regiments were combined into one in february 1657.